What are the causes of abnormal menstruation?

  • Ovulatory dysfunction
  • Endometrial polyps
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Adenomyosis
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Ectopic pregnancy, threatened miscarriage and abnormal pregnancies
  • Post coital bleeding


Ovulatory Dysfunction: Ovulatory dysfunction refers to irregular or absent ovulation, which can lead to menstrual irregularities such as irregular cycles, skipped periods, or anovulatory cycles (cycles without ovulation). Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or hypothalamic dysfunction can disrupt the normal ovulation process, leading to ovulatory dysfunction.


Endometrial Polyps: Endometrial polyps are abnormal growths or protrusions of tissue from the lining of the uterus (endometrium). These polyps can cause abnormal menstrual bleeding, including heavy or prolonged periods, spotting between periods, or irregular bleeding. While often benign, endometrial polyps may require removal if they cause symptoms or affect fertility.


Uterine Fibroids: Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths of the muscular wall of the uterus. Depending on their size and location, fibroids can cause symptoms such as heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and pressure. They can also lead to irregular menstruation by affecting the normal functioning of the uterus.


Adenomyosis: Adenomyosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. This can cause symptoms such as heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, severe menstrual cramps, and irregular periods. Adenomyosis can disrupt the normal menstrual cycle and cause irregular bleeding patterns.


Endometrial Cancer: Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the lining of the uterus (endometrium). Abnormal vaginal bleeding, including irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding, is one of the most common symptoms of endometrial cancer. While other conditions can also cause abnormal bleeding, it's essential to rule out endometrial cancer, especially in postmenopausal women or those with risk factors.


Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is cancer that develops in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus. One of the symptoms of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, which may include irregular bleeding between periods, bleeding after intercourse (postcoital bleeding), or unusually heavy menstrual bleeding. Regular cervical screening tests (such as Pap smears) can help detect cervical abnormalities early.


Ectopic Pregnancy, Threatened Miscarriage, and Abnormal Pregnancies: Pregnancy-related conditions such as ectopic pregnancy (where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus), threatened miscarriage (bleeding in early pregnancy), or other abnormal pregnancies can cause abnormal vaginal bleeding, including irregular bleeding or spotting.


Postcoital Bleeding: Postcoital bleeding refers to vaginal bleeding that occurs after sexual intercourse. While it can have various causes, including cervical or vaginal infections, cervical polyps, or cervical cancer, it can also be associated with other gynecological conditions such as endometrial polyps or uterine fibroids. It's essential to identify the underlying cause through a thorough medical evaluation.


Belgravia Clinic
         2 Grosvenor Gardens, London SW1W 0DH (All Specialties)
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        17 Croxted Road, London SE21 8SZ (Medical Specialties)
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         Reception: 020 8124 8124





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